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25岁是做出随机选择的能力。 (25 is ‘golden age’ for the ability to make random choices)

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25 is ‘golden age’ for the ability to make random choices

更好地了解年龄影响的随机行为研究人员评估了超过3400名年龄在4至91岁的人的old.Image:Flickr/Paco Lopez
To better understand how age impacts random behavior researchers assessed more than 3,400 people aged 4 to 91 years old.Image Credit:Flickr/Paco Lopez

根据PLOS计算生物学杂志发表的一项研究,人们随机选择或模拟随机过程的能力,例如提出一系列硬币翻转的假设结果,达25岁左右。

People’s ability to make random choices or mimic a random process, such as coming up with hypothetical results for a series of coin flips, peaks around age 25, according to a study published in PLOS Computational Biology.

科学家认为,这种行为的能力出现在人类中一些最高度发达的认知过程中,并可能与人类的创造力等能力相联系。以前的研究表明,衰老会削弱一个人随意行为的能力。然而,目前还不清楚这种能力如何演变为一个人的有生之年,也没有可能评估人类在简单的统计测试中随意表现的方式。

Scientists believe that the ability to behave in a way that appears random arises from some of the most highly developed cognitive processes in humans, and may be connected to abilities such as human creativity. Previous studies have shown that aging diminishes a person’s ability to behave randomly. However, it had been unclear how this ability evolves over a person’s lifetime, nor had it been possible to assess the ways in which humans may behave randomly beyond simple statistical tests.

为了更好地了解年龄影响如何随机行为,Nicolas Gauvrit和在Algorithmic自然集团的同事LABORES为自然和数字科学的巴黎,评估了3至90岁的3至3岁的人。每位参与者进行了一系列在线任务,评估他们的行为能力是随机的。

To better understand how age impacts random behavior, Nicolas Gauvrit and colleagues at the Algorithmic Nature Group, LABORES for the Natural and Digital Sciences, Paris, assessed more than 3,400 people aged 4 to 91 years old. Each participant performed a series of online tasks that assessed their ability to behave randomly.

这五个任务包括列出一系列12个硬币翻转的假设结果,以便他们“随机查找别人”,猜测当从随机洗牌的甲板中选出时会出现哪张卡,并列出10卷的假设结果死亡 – “如果你真的滚死了你会得到的顺序。”

The five tasks included listing the hypothetical results of a series of 12 coin flips so that they would “look random to somebody else,” guessing which card would appear when selected from a randomly shuffled deck, and listing the hypothetical results of 10 rolls of a die — “the kind of sequence you’d get if you really rolled a die.”

科学家们根据自己的算法随机性来分析参与者的选择,这种随机性的依据是,在数学上比较随意地总结出更多的模式。在对性别、语言和教育等特征进行控制后,他们发现年龄是唯一影响到随机行为能力的因素。这种能力在25岁时达到顶峰,平均而下降了。

The scientists analyzed the participants’ choices according to their algorithmic randomness, which is based on the idea that patterns that are more random are harder to summarize mathematically. After controlling for characteristics such as gender, language, and education, they found that age was the only factor that affected the ability to behave randomly. This ability peaked at age 25, on average, and declined from then on.

研究合作作者Hector Zenil说:“这项实验是一种针对随机行为的反向图灵测试,是算法与人类之间实力的考验。”“25岁的时候,人类最好的outsmart电脑的黄金年龄平均是25岁,”Gauvrit博士补充道。

“This experiment is a kind of reverse Turing test for random behavior, a test of strength between algorithms and humans,” says study co-author Hector Zenil. “25 is, on average, the golden age when humans best outsmart computers,” adds Dr. Gauvrit.

研究还表明,选择相对较短的清单,说10个假想硬币翻转,可以用来可靠地衡量人的行为的随机性。作者现在正采用类似的方法来研究在行为能力和认知下降和神经变性疾病等行为中的潜在联系。

The study also demonstrated that a relatively short list of choices, say 10 hypothetical coin flips, can be used to reliably gauge randomness of human behavior. The authors are now using a similar approach to study potential connections between the ability to behave randomly and such things as cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases.

图片来源:PLOS

Source: PLOS

研究参考:Nicolas Gauvrit,Hector Zenil,Fernando Soler(托斯卡Toscano),Peter Brugger,Peter Brugger。人类行为复杂性25岁时的高峰。PLOS计算生物学,2017年; 13(4):e1005408 DOI:10.1371 / journal.pcbi.1005408

Research Reference: Nicolas Gauvrit, Hector Zenil, Fernando Soler-Toscano, Jean-Paul Delahaye, Peter Brugger. Human behavioral complexity peaks at age 25. PLOS Computational Biology, 2017; 13 (4): e1005408 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005408


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